1 - Introduction to Calderpark
walking through Glasgow Zoo with its slopes and the meandering river,
one cannot help pondering over the changes that may have taken place
on this land over thousands and millions of years.
is fascinating to speculate, or indeed, to find out how the land
was formed, or who lived on it, or passed over it during past centuries.
following chapters will therefore help unfolding Calderpark's geological
development and its history.
name " Glasgow Zoo " is a fairly recent one, and - for
most - it will be better known as " Calderpark Zoo ".
1936 the Zoological Society of Glasgow and the West of Scotland
was formed, and a few years later, the Society bought the former
Calderpark Estate with the intention of establishing a zoo on this
after the war, in 1947, which was a difficult perod for starting
and obtaining things, Calderpark Zoo was opened.
The name " Calderpark " stems from the early 19th century
and is quite easily explained:-
first part, " Calder " is taken from the river Calder,
or, more precisely, The North Calder Water, which winds its way
right through the zoo. The river must have been witness - during
its thousands of years of existence - of many changes and historical
events that took place in and around the area.
" Park " as in Calderpark, can be explained:-
the early 19th century, Mr James McNair , a wealthy Glasgow
Sugar Refiner and merchant and - a descendant of a family of merchants
and coalmasters - acquired the land on a feu from the Bogles
built a handsome villa on the land thus acquired, and called his
estate from then on " Calderpark ". Under this name the
area was known for the best part of one and three quarter centuries.
McNair acquired the land, Old Monklands - to which Calderpark
belonged - was farmland. The farm that was replaced by the villa
was called New Mill , as Forrester's Lanarkshire Map (1813)
and hidden from the eye, the entire area was rich in coal measures,
and it was therefore an inevitable development during the industrial
era, that coal mines .sprung up all around the estate.
order to hide the unattractive collieries, McNair arranged for trees
to be planted. This gave the land a parklike appearance, and hence,
was contributive in forming the name Calder park
of the trees planted at that time, are still here today and help
enhance the setting of Glasgow's zoo. The land with its slopes and
hills, the river and woods at the far side, and the small loch,
provides an ideal setting for a zoo.
turn, the zoo provides enjoyment and education, not only for the
people of Glasgow, but also draws interested groups from all over
the West of Scotland.
2 - Geological and Geomorphological Formation of the Area
geological terms, the Scottish Midland Valley spreads right across
from the west coast to the east coast, within the Forth-Clyde isthmus.
the north and south this rift valley is bounded by two parallel
Midland Valley possesses rich coal fields and coal has been mined
in this area for centuries, but probably most intensely during the
the Scottish Midland Valley are several carboniferous ( coal-bearing
) basins, and Calderpark is situated in the Lanarkshire Carboniferous
Basin of Central Scotland.
carboniferous succession is made up of lower carboniferous stratae
and upper carboniferous stratae. These stratae, or layers, were
deposited in the following succession (starting from the lowest
in the upper group of various coal measures alternating with layers
of limestone. This succession of layers is then finally topped by
a layer of reddish sandstone, called red barren sandstone
. The exposed sandstone layer is visible quite clearly along the North
of cement stone
drifts and alluvial deposits were, however, later responsible for
shaping the topography within the basin.
understand how it came to the many different layers of carboniferous
deposits, one has to imagine what it may have been like around here,
over 300 million years ago.
area was covered with thickly forested swamps. In these, dead vegetable
matter accumulated and formed thick beds of peat. Then, over thousands,
or even millions of years, the peat layer carbonised, and changed
into coal. Through fossils, which are frequently found in coal,
the type of plant that was growing in these forests, can be established.
They were fern-like plants, and judging by the fossilised trunk
remains found, they must have been as high as our present forest
trees; in some cases, probably even higher.
over a long period, water washed over the peat layer depositing
sand and shells of water-borne animals. Again, fossils found in
limestone can tell us about their shape, size and nature.
the water receded, over a considerable period, new swamps and forest
grew up one more, and the previous process of the plant and forest
stage repeated itself. Over millions of years, this resulted in
coal measures alternating with layers of limestone.
is roughly what happened - and judging by the many layers - one
period succeeded the other several times.
indeed far more recently, the last ice age of the Pleistocene
period, was responsible for shaping the topography of Scotland,
and of course, of the Calderpark area.
12,000 years ago, large ice sheets covered the northern continents,
which included also most of Britain. These ice sheets advanced from
the north and moved in a south-easterly direction. In the process
the ice sheets were grinding down rough rocky areas and were depositing,
on the other hand, till ( or boulder clay ) obliterating
former drainage patterns, and filling in pre-glacial rock basins.
Alluvial deposits reaching far beyond present river systems are
proof of such changes in drainage patterns.
offers a good example of most of these geological and geomorphological
Undergound - as we have learned - the site was rich in coal
measures; and the hills at Calderpark are the result of boulder
clay deposition. The deposits were then gradually cut down and shaped
by succeeding meltwaters.
maps of the site show that alluvial deposits are covering a much
wider area than that of the present North Calder Water. It can therefore
be assumed that the river changed its path more than once, to take
eventually, its meandering course cutting through softer ground
and thus avoiding harder substances of a basaltic rock nature.
winding river adds to the beauty of Calderpark as we know it today.
3 - Readvance of Ice Sheets
Animal Remains Embedded in Gravel and Sand
drifts and alluvial deposits are - as we know from the previous
section - responsible for the topography of the Calderpark area.
has to consider here, however, that ice sheets were not a static
feature. After once ice sheet had moved away into a south-easterly
direction, the Clyde area remained ice free for a while. Consequently,
animal life, as well as plant life, began to re-establish itself,
although the climate must have been considerably colder than experienced
by us at present.
such as reindeer, rhinoceros, and mammoth lived alongside the newly
formed rivers. As a consequence, some of their remains have been
found in gravel and sand - often under 50 feet of till ( boulder
had happened was, that another ice sheet ( known as the Perth
Re-advance ) made its way into the area from the north-east,
thus burying the surprised mammoth together with the other animals.
Now their remains are found under a thick layer of till, deposited
by the re-advance ice sheet.
recent excavations into and below the glacial till - during building
operations - south and east of Glasgow, have revealed interesting
animal finds of the type described above.
At Queen's Park, remains of reindeer have been found during sewer
Near Carluke a reindeer antler has been dug out, with clear signs
of glacial abrasion on its antler.
However, much nearer to Calderpark, at Baillieston, remains of
mammoth have been discovered
and at Chapelhall, near Airdrie, similar mammoth finds have been
that plant life was also existent during the ice-free period, was
the discovery of peat layers in the vicinity of Airdrie. Embedded
in this peat were twigs and branches, and several species of beetle.
Again these finds were made underneath a thick sheet of till.
such discoveries were obviously made, and probably many more will
be made, but those known to us were further afield - and therefore
not of immediate interest to the area of Calderpark.
4 - Indications of Prehistoric Activities in the Area
remains of mammoth, reindeer and the like were discovered, they
had been embedded in sands and gravel of river beds and flood plains.
This also happened with Neolithic finds - many of them have been
recovered from the beds of flood plains of the River Clyde.
St. Enoch's church in Glasgow, a dug-out canoe has been found at
a depth of 25 feet.
Castlemilk a longboat - made of oak - has been found. This has also
been dated back to the Neolithic period.
nearer in time and space, Bronze and Iron Age burial grounds have
been discovered - all not very far from Calderpark. The findings
were generally " accidental , because they were made during
the working of gravel pits, within the last century.
an unsuspecting workman came across a pottery vessel, or an urn
by mere chance while hired to dig sand or gravel.
such discoveries of " old pots and bones " often remained
unrecorded, due to sheer ignorance of the finders concerned. People
were generally unaware of the great pre-historic value of such finds.
nearest to Calderpark were less than a mile away to the west, between
Calderpark and Mount Vernon. Several burial grounds were found in
this area. There were other discoveries recorded from:
site revealed crouched inhumations, tools and coins, which were discovered
when workmen were levelling a small mound.
Baillieston (at Springhills Nurseries and Camp Farm)
Old Monklands, near Old Monklands church.
most cases, either urns or wooden remains of coffins, pottery vessels,
carbonised remains of food and tools have been dug out.
human remains were almost always found in a crouched position, whether
they were bones of old people, or skeletons of youngsters.
parts of garments, which were - in one instance - described as being
made of a hair-moss type of material , have been found.
of these exhibits can now be seen at Glasgow Art Gallery and Museum,
Kelvingrove; the Old Glasgow Museum, People's Palace Glasgow Green;
or the Airdrie Public Library.
no direct proof has come forth of a hidden burial ground directly
on the Calderpark site - an assumption that there may well be such
evidence, is not too far fetched.
geological charts it is known that there are alluvial deposits at
Calderpark and - as most discoveries in the vicinity were made in
sand and gravel of river beds - one could speculate that some Neolithic,
or Bronze Age, or for that matter Iron Age remains may well lie
undiscovered under the frounds of Calderpark.
it may be advisable to wait until such a find were brought
to light " accidentally ".
there were the Romans, who left their mark by building forts, fortlets
and - to connect them - roads.
the 80s (AD) Agricola was in charge of the advance into
lowland Scotland, as governor of the Flavian period. Under
his command, gradually more forts and roads were built - on the
way north - and these road links formed an intricate road network.
Initially, the forts were built at intervals of one-day marches,
but were subsequently built at half-day intervals.
was Agricola's plan to incorporate Scotland into the province. This
idea, however, had never been realised. It would have been economical
from the point of view that the size of the occupying garrison could
have been diminished, on the other hand, however, Scotland did not
offer any economic value at that time. The line of the Clyde and
Forth isthmus, which Agricola had established, remained the boundary
of Roman rule until Hadrian's time.
Emperor Hadrian has made a name for himself by having a
rampart built, which is known to this day as Hadrian's Wall
. What caused Hadrian to take this action is not really known.
It is assumed that he feared disasters coming from barbaric raiding
parties from the north.
wall was intended as a continuation of look-out posts from which
to watch for raiders. It is unlikely that it was meant to be a fortification,
or defensive shelters, behind which the garrison was to fight. Hadrian's
garrison consisted of approximately 15,000 troops drawn from all
over the Roman Empire
the existence of such a wall, it seems surprising that Hadrian's
successor, Antoninus Pius moved forward into Scotland once
more - after the gradual retreat of previous troops led by Agricola.
Antoninus pushed forward to the line of Clyde to Forth to build
another line of defence, namely the Antonine Wall .
Titus Aurelius Antoninus was a middle-aged senator when appointed
by Hadrian to be his successor. Antoninus was described as "
an amicable soul, an exemplary character and generous to his friends
". Everyone like him, and the Senate bestowed him with the
name of Pius, hence he was known as Antoninus Pius .
road which led past and partly through Calderpark was thus the work
of the Antoninus - as Antoninus Pius and his troops were called
- during the period 138 - 161 AD.Remains of a Roman station at Bothwellhaugh,
at the junction of South Calder with the Clyde, was discovered in
is approximately the centre point on the road, frequently mentioned
as Watling Street, which leads from Castledykes (Lanark) to Balmuidy
and Castlehill on the Antonine Wall.
in a north-westerly direction from Bothwellhaugh, the road passes
Birkenshaw and must have been an ideal foundation for the Old Edinburgh
Road; then it goes in a generally westerly direction along a slope
lined by a row of trees, just alongside Calderpark.
North Calder Water was then forded at a shallow point near the zoo
and, from there the road went straight to Tollcross, again probably
right through the southern borders of Calderpark.
is assumed that from Tollcross, Glasgow would have been entered
on the route which is now the Great Eastern Road, i.e. Drygate,
Port Dundas, Possilpark to the fort of Balmuidy on the Antonine
Wall. Thus Bulmuidy and Castlecarry on the Antonine Wall became
the northern terminals on the communication line from Castledykes
at the southern end of Watling Street.
CHURCH LAND AND FARMING
some hundred years after the Roman occupation of Scotland, very
little has been recorded about the native people and their way of
is known, however, that around the time of the Roman occupation,
and probably long before, the area that is now Glasgow, was covered
by immense oak forests. We also read that the small community living
there, was still in the state of barbarism.
One name ' St Ninian ' - the Apostle of the Picts, appears
in the 4th century. He was trained in Rome in the doctrine and discipline
of the Western Church, and was attracted to the area.
was then called ' Cathures ', and St Ninian lived at the
banks of the Molendinar burn, a contributory of the River Clyde.
St Ninian, Cathures and its people fell into oblivion, except for
a reference of heathen people living in the area.
The next recording comes from the middle of the 6th century, when
St Kentigern (which means ' High Lord ') or
MUNGO (Patron Saint of Glasgow and means ' my dear friend
') founded the Bishopric of Glasgow. He lived until 603.
500 years had to pass until Glasgow reappeared in the Scottish records,
and this brings us to the 12th century. From this time onwards,
some special references have been made to various districts. We
learn of the Monklands district, to which the site of the present
The name ' Monklands ' was in use before 1323, and its
The Monklands, formerly constituting a third part of the domain
of the Abbacy of Newbottle (sometimes also recorded as Newbattle)
were for many ages the property of a company of Cistercian or
Bernhardine monks of this abbacy.
The name 'The Monklands' was given to all their ecclesiastic
domains in this part of the country.
recording in ' The Statistical Account of Scotland ' (1845)
states that there were remains of a Roman Catholic chapel at a place
called Kipps , which was destroyed at the reformation.
At this chapel, the Abbots of Newbottle held annual courts for levying
rents and feus of the 100 pound land of the barony of Monkland.
It goes to say that now only fields and, upon a rising ground, an
upright granite stone, are left. This stone was believed to have
been the only remainder of the chapel and legends were told about
witches that were buried underneath it.
the year 1640, the Monklands district was divided into two parishes;
one was called OLD or West Monkland, the other NEW
or East Monkland. Later, they were popularly known as Old and
New Monklands. The area of Calderpark belonged to the parish of
Old Monkland .
are indications that the land of Old Monkland was fertile farmland.
In the same Statistical Account of Scotland, a Rev. Bower is quoted
as saying " ... one is struck with the
view of this parish. It has the appearance of an immense garden..."
He also refers to the Monks "... who usually fixed upon a pleasant
situation, had residence here.
Abbacy of Newbottle also had possession of part of Daldowie, and
the site of Calderpark belonged, in the form of farmland, to Daldowie.
Its history is well-recorded and therefore deserves a chapter
of its own .
monks of the abbacy worked the land for a considerable time, at
least since the recordings started in 1323, and probably up to the
Farming methods were, of course, primitive, and a large extent of
the land was rented out to farmers. There are signs in the area
of open rig systems. These were raised mounds of earth. The resultant
ditches between the rigs were filled with rubble and served as a
source of drainage. These rigs were about 15 feet wide, which enabled
the farmer to walk up the centre, and to sow the seeds by hand from
side to side.
seems that the rig systems were mostly evident in poorer boggy soils,
probably for reasons of drainage, and probably also, because only
the land that yielded poor harvests, was available for rent.
methods developed with the times. The first stage of development
was, that single furrow ploughs were used with one horse. Sowing
was still done by hand. Grain, particularly oats, was the staple
food, up to a time when potatoes were introduced to the area.
as with the famous potato famine in Ireland, failure of potato crops
was not unknown in the 19th century and led to great hardships amongst
time went on, farming became more specialised. With the growth of
urban Glasgow, demands began to grow and this inturn improved both
prospects and methods of farming.
rotation was introduced. This meant that cereal crops were grown
one year and were alternated the following year by root crops. The
advantage of this system is that, as some plants exhaust the nutrients
in the soil, others replace them. For example, cereal crops drain
nutrients from the soil, whereas root crops or clover restore them
to the soil.
other methods were developed to save time in cultivation and harvesting.
The four-furrow ploughs; and a team of horses (often Clydesdales
) was employed to help cultivating the fields.
By the end of the 19th century, with the invention of the car and
the compression ignition engine, better known as the Diesel engine,
the development to replace horse power - as in horses -
began. This was a loss for the nostalgic-minded, and with the advent
of traction engines the beauty of teamwork between man and his horses
began to disappear.
increased demand had to be matched with faster and more productive
methods of farming.
close this chapter, an old story from the last century, referring
to the Monklands, might be of interest:-
It is of a large artificial cave, dug out of a bold rocky imminence
on the banks of the River Calder, in the estate of Monklands, in
a most romantic and sequestered spot. This seems to have been a
most labourious undertaking. But whether it has been intended as
an asylum in barbarous times, or the abode of the melancholy hermit,
is left to the imagination of the individual reader.
the statistical Account of Scotland (1945) )
7 - DALDOWIE
fair appear the rural scene
for thou, O Clyde, has never been
Beneficent as strong;
Pleased in refreshing dews to steep
The little trembling flowers that peep
Thy shelving rocks among!"
William Wordsworth (1770-1850)
all probability this poem depicts Daldowie and its surrounding landscape,
for Wordsworth, together with his sister, travelled on this route
to Hamilton during his journey through Scotland.
the reformation, the Daldowie estate with all its land belonged
to the church, in part to the bishopric of Glasgow and, the lands
to the north-east of Daldowie, which later became CALDERPARK
, were in the possession of the Abbacy of Newbottle.
entry into the rental book of the diocese informs us that "
in 1521 Robert Stuart of Mynto rented the land of Daldui ".
Stewarts of Minto, an influential Glasgow family, were said to have
ruled Glasgow for nearly two centuries. They settled in Glasgow
before 1472, the year in which Sir Thomas Stewart was Provost of
Glasgow. Later, many of his descendants also held prominent civil
posts. As a consequence of their influence, the Stewarts became
Lairds of Daldowie after the reformation.
1653, during the protectorate of Cromwell, Sir Ludovic Stewart sold
the lands and mansion of Daldowie to James Woodrop, Younger of Dalmarnock.
However, 18 years after the acquisition of the estate, Mr Woodrop
parted with Daldowie to James Muirhead of Bredisholm, whose grandson,
John sold the lands in 1724 to Robert Bogle, merchant in Glasgow.
He, Robert Bogle, was the son of George Bogle, a wealthy Glasgow
merchant, who died in 1707.
following references have been made, and are recorded in Old
Country Houses of Glasgow (1898), to the Minto residence:-
1654: In Blaeu's map of Lanarkshire by Timothy Pont, published
in Amsterdam in 1654, a house is represented on Daldowie.
In the early 18th century, Hamilton of Wishaw wrote "....
and more downward, where Calder falls into Clyde, is Daldui, an
ancient seat of the Lairds of the Minto Stewarts - a most pleasant
dwelling, if the seat, gardens and planting has are house upon
This indicates that, when Robert Bogle bought Daldowie in 1724,
the Minto Stewarts' residence was in ruins, and at that time no
other house had been built to replace it.
Another entry from the same source says that " when Robert
Bogle bought the place, there was no house upon it, the old residence
of the Minto Stewarts', which stood on the hill immediately behind
the present house, and of which traces remained till modern times
(1878) having been allowed to fall to ruins. "
It is estimated that George Bogle, Robert Bogle's successor, built
a house on the Daldowie estate before 1745, because one of his
children was born there that year.
George Bogle of Daldowie died in 1872 and was succeeded by his
son Robert, who remained unmarried and died at Daldowie in 1808.
After his death the property came into the hands of his two sister,
one of them was Mrs Brown. Her son, George Brown of Langside,
inherited Daldowie after his mother's and aunt's death.
The property has been in the Bogles' possession for just over
100 years, and the Daldowie residence had not seen many alterations
during this time.
In 1825 George Brown sold Daldowie to John Dixon from Calder Iron
Works, who 5 years later, sold it to Mr James McCall, a respected
Glasgow merchant. According to the records, Mr McCall changed
and extended the house considerably between the years of 1830
Hugh McDonald (1950) had the following to say about Daldowie:-
Ascending to the brow of the bank, a prospect of great beauty meets
our gaze. Far below, the Clyde is seen between the ivied trunks,
which bristle the steep, quivering in a sunny ripple, or stretching
in wandering loveliness around the green trees, studded haughs of
Daldowie on the one hand, and towards the wood-fringed banks of
Carmyle on the other. That spacious mansion to the left, couching
upon its own verdant lawn, is the residence of Mr McCall of Daldowie,
and certainly the more desirable place of abode it would be difficult
house and its beautiful gardens are remembered to this day by older
folks, who may well have strolled through those well-kept gardens
in their childhood.
few decades ago, Lanarkshire Council acquired the Daldowie property
and had a crematorium erected on the site.
8 - CALDERPARK
the early 19th century, the Bogles of Daldowie feued the lands of
CALDERPARK to Mr James McNair. To be precise, the estate
only received the name CALDERPARK after McNair had a handsome
villa built on these grounds, in about 1815.
James McNair was a member of a well-known Glasgow family. He and
brother Robert were at that time engaged in the business of sugar
refining. Their sugar house stood at the corner of Ingram Street
and Queen Street. (See also Chapter
9, Of Wealthy Merchants and Their Properties )
the middle of the 19th century, Calderpark changed hands and Mr
Theodore Walrond became proprietor. He was a descendent of an old
Devonshire family. Mr Walrond, an East India Proprietor and Merchant
in Glasgow, was for many years one of the most respected members
of the community, and was said to have been one of " the finest
specimens of a Glasgow merchant of the olden time ". His death
was a great loss for the city. Mr Walrond had a large family, and
his eldest son, also Theodore, finished his education at Oxford
and became a reputed classical scholar. Another son, Francis Charles,
became a merchant in Glasgow.
Mr Walrond's death, Calderpark was sold to Mr James Reid Stewart,
Iron Merchant of Glasgow. In 1875, Mr Reid Stewart sold his estate
for £35,000 to Mr John Hendrie, a Glasgow coalmaster. A few years
later, Mr Hendrie sold part of the land to the " Hamilton, Bothwell
and Coatbridge Railway Company ".
is not known whether Mr Hendrie ever lived at the villa himself.
What is known, however is that he leased the property in the early
last family to live at CALDERPARK were the Websters. Mr Webster
was a well-known cattle breeder and dealer in Glasgow.
is recorded that the Websters lived at Calderpark during the First
World War and probably right to the end of the villa's existence.
the last century and the beginning of this one, coal had been excavated
from underneath the Calderpark estate. Also, some seams were mined
right underneath the house, Unfortunately, this eventually caused
subsidence. The damage to the building structure was said to have
been so severe that the villa had to be demolished some time during
before its unhappy fate, the villa has been described as a strong
and gracious building of three stories. Its front entrance was flanked
by twin columns.
it must have been bright and airy, with plenty of windows and the
front hall led into a second or inner hall, from which the public
rooms opened. Its ceiling was the full height of the house and was
crowned by a glass dome. Many a hunt ball or other social occasions
were held at Calderpark House.
view from the villa was said to have been exquisite. From the drawing
room and sitting room windows, steps led onto a flag stone terrace,
from where one could overlook the part that was fringed with trees.
Its lawns sloped to a small plateau and then slanted down to the
North Calder Water.
description of the drive into Calderpark has been given by Mr Webster's
daughter, and this captures the atmosphere of this epoch, and the
beauty of the park vividly.
To enter by the lodge gates and walk up the long avenue bordered
by daffodils and backed by deep purple rhododendrons, was like stepping
into another world, a world of beauty and tranquillity. The avenue
ended in a wide sweep at the front of the house curving round in
a sloping lawn circled by massed rhododendrons and backed by a small
those interested to know where the house stood - it was opposite
the present lions' enclosures - at the site of the little round
THE WALLED GARDEN
Calderpark House had its own garden nearby, the chapter on CALDERPARK
would be incomplete, if the Walled Garden were to remain unmentioned.
only parts of the gate are standing upright, and bricks strewn about
in the high grass bear witness to a once fine establishment, for
the rest of the site has became overgrown with high grass and weeds
- even the bridge that once led to it no longer exists.
once upon a time, there stood a very attractive walled garden, with
a gardener's lodge attached to its north-westerly corner. The map
excerpts of an 1860 Ordnance Survey map shows the garden wall, as
well as the photo that fortunately survived.
walls were said to have been about 12 feet high. Judging by the
photo, it is difficult to say whether it was really as high as that.
The garden was protected from the north and east against the cold
winds by the hills and high trees. With the Calder Water running
along its south and west side, the garden was ideally situated,
so much so that peaches were grown there.
the garden originally belonged to Calderpark cannot be traced clearly,
it may have been part of the Calderbank estate, or, it was leased
out to this property. May this be as it may, a garden like this
one must have been the envy of every keen gardener.
9. OF WEALTHY MERCHANTS AND THEIR PROPERTIES
seems that the rich merchants, mentioned in previous chapters, either
married each others' daughters, or bought each others' property.
are speaking of properties like:
the McCalls and
these are not in the immediate vicinity of CALDERPARK, their owners
were once connected with the Daldowie lands, in one way or another.
It is worth noting that all these properties were east of Glasgow
- an area that in later years was not much favoured by those wishing
to invest in properties.
chronological order the properties and their owners were connected
Beginning of 16th Century:
The Bogles had farms in Carmyle; in Shettleston [ 1
] and Daldowie they became prominent, one of the Bogles, namely
George Bogle, who died in 1707, is said to have been buried
under a stone placed against the East End of Glasgow. Its inscription
HERE IS THE PLES APOYNTED FOR THE BURIAL OF GEORGE BOGLE.
George Bogle was married to Jean Park and had 3 sons.
1724 : His eldest son, Robert, acquired Daldowie in 1724.
1731 : In 1731 Robert Bogle's eldest sons, George married
Ann Sinclair (of Stevenstown).
1745 : One of George Bogle's children was born at the Daldowie
house in 1745.
1751 : JEANFIELD has been occupied as a farm and nursery
at that time.
1758 : In this year Jeanfield fell into the hands of Robert
McNair (for £100).
Note : Shettleston had been mentioned in 1170 in documents
from Pope Alexander as Schedinestun .
McNair was a well known eccentric and built a mansion, which
was said to have been so ugly that it became the laughing stock
of all those who saw it. It was called JEANFIELD after
McNair's wife, Jean.
In 1847 the house was demolished.
These exists an anecdote about McNair's eccentricity:
Apparently Robert McNair brought about a change in the legal
customs of Scotland.
It had been common practice that the defendant should - when
successful in a court trial - give each juryman one guinea and
supper. When McNair was involved in a court case against him,
the jury was again expecting the usual ' perks ', however,
Mr McNair promised them 2 guineas, a dinner and as much wine
as they could drink, if the verdict were in his favour.
He won the case !
1759 : GREENFIELD HOUSE Robert Bogle/James McNair.
The lands and the mansion house of Greenfield was purchased by
James McNair. (Probably brother of Jeanfield and great uncle of
James McNair of CALDERPARK.) This purchase took place in the year
McNair acquired the property from Isabel Luke (daughter of Robert
Luke, Goldsmith in Glasgow), then wife of Robert Bogle.
James McNair was described as a Glasgow coalmaster of great
importance, a man with interests in the malt as well as mining,
and either he or his son was still engaged in the coal industry
in the 1790's.
1762 : SHETTLESTON Mansion - Robert Bogle/James
McNair The adjoining lands and mansion house of Shettleston were
purchased by James McNair from Robert Bogle in that year.
1760 : BELVIDERE HOUSE - John McCall/Robert McNair
The lands of Belvidere are situated about 2 miles east of Glasgow.
Belvidere is not the old name. The lands were composed of several
lots, which previously formed part of Wester Dalbeth and of Westhorn.
The largest of these plots was called " The little Newlands
", which was bought by Mr John McCall (brother of James McCall
of DALDOWIE) in the 1760.
One of Mr McCall's daughters was married to Robert McNair of
Jeanfield - in the immediate vicinity of Belvidere.
1790 : When Mr McCall died in 1790, the property was sold
to his son-in-law, Robert McNair. This Robert McNair was presumably
the grandson of the first Robert McNair of Jeanfield.
same Robert McNair, was a sugar refiner in Glasgow and was partner
with his father (also Robert) in the concern of ROBERT MCNAIR &
SON of Gallowpark Sugar Works. But after the death of Robert, the
father in 1787, the son got together with his younger brother James
(later the owner of CALDERPARK).
two brothers named their sugar house ROBERT AND JAMES MCNAIR. They
purchased a piece of land for this purpose, which was situated at
the south-west corner of Ingram Street and Queen Street - opposite
the Royal Exchange.
McNair sold Belvidere in 1813 and became Collector of his Majesty's
Customs in Leith.
This same Robert McNair projected the idea of establishing a Lunatic
Asylum in the north-west of Glasgow. He is said to have zealously
promoted its interests - and even after his move to Leith he continued
to take an interest in the success of the Asylum.
consisted of a central building, crowned by a dome. Four divisions
of wards were arranged diagonally from the central building. The
asylum was said to have been surrounded by ample gardens and greens
and the whole area was enclosed by a high stone wall.
Class distinction played an important role in the arrangements of
the wards, and Swan's Views of Glasgow (originally 1829) states
that " ...the utmost discrimination was used. The higher and
lower classes had their distinctive wards, so that the unhappy sufferers
may not be obliged to associate with a class different from what
they have been accustomed to in the world. "
from the classes, the sexes were of course kept apart, and the furious,
the moderate and the convalescent patients were all carefully separated.
have come across Robert's brother, James, in Chapter
8 CALDERPARK . He is the same person who acquired the land of
Easter Daldowie (initially on a feu), had a handsome villa built
on its grounds in 1815, and called the estate from then on CALDERPARK.
further activities or the whereabouts of any of his descendants
were not recorded.
10 - NOTES OF ' SLAVERY ' IN THE SCOTTISH COAL MINING
may be disputed whether such a chapter as this is of relevance,
but in justification it can be said that it involves an industry
which was going on in and around CALDERPARK . It can even
be taken a step further as, indeed, great uncle James McNair seems
to have been involved in keeping slaves, when he was coalmaster
anecdote, which appeared as a footnote in Old Country Houses of
Glasgow (1878), can highlight this point. A man called Rogers is
mentioned, who had the following story to tell about ' Greenfield
In the year 1820, the story goes, Mr Robert Bold of Alloa was on
visit to his friend, Mr Colin Dunlop - a representative of Glasgow
at Parliament - living at Clyde.
Mr Dunlop called up one of the workers, an old man, who went by
the name of Moss Nook, and bade him tell the gentleman how he came
to Clyde. Moss Nook explained that he had " belonged "
as a boy to McNair of Greenfield, and that Greenfield that taken
a fancy to a pony of James Dunlop's father (Colin's father) and
had " niffered him for the beast "; and that he had been
sent over, there and then, and had been at Clyde ever since.
must thus have taken place in the latter half of the 18th century,
because we know that James McNair of Greenfield bought that property
in 1759 and became coalmaster there.
such an incident in the perspective of emancipation and enlightenment,
which we 20th century citizens, at least of the Western World, are
taking for granted, this story does not do much to endear great
uncle McNair to us. It is also strange to hear that man and beast
were of similar value to their masters, and could thus be exchanged
should, perhaps, not be too critical of James McNair, because "
serfdom " and/or " slavery " had been common practice
in the Scottish Coalmining Industry at that time.
was probably more a matter of fate, whether one was born into the
wealthy ruling classes, or whether one had the bad fortune of belonging
to the poorer classes.
seems quite astonishing about this anecdote though is, that "
enslavement " was still in practice as late as the latter half
of the 18th century.
investigating this problem more closely one finds, that references
to " slavery " were made as late as the 19th century, long
after the OFFICIAL ACT OF THE ABOLISHMENT OF SLAVERY was
passed in 1775.
preamble to this act said that " ... many
colliers and coalbearers and salters are in a state of delivery
and bondage, bound to the collieries or saltworks, where they work
for life, transferable with the collieries or saltworks.
such an Act did not seem to have deterred coalmasters from their
practices. In 1799, another Act came into force, and it was mentioned
" that many colliers and coalbearers still continued in a state
of bondage. "
exists another story of a slave, from a family of slaves, which
happened as late as 1842:-
collier from Musselburgh gave evidence before the Scottish Mining
Commission , that he had wrought for years as a slave, and
that he, his father and his grandfather had been born slaves.
little later still, reference has been made to a period AFTER
1843, of a Dalkeith woman who had been a born slave.
reasons for slavery to have existed was obviously a question of
too much power, as a consequence of wealth on the one hand, and
absolute powerlessness, in the form of poverty, on the other hand.
if he had wanted to, a collier bound to a coalmaster would neither
have had the means, nor the education to transfer on his own account
to some other place. The resulting inflexibility was therefore responsible
for the worker and his family to be bound to one place for generations.
following will support this statement:-
" A HISTORY OF THE SCOTTISH COAL INDUSTRY 1700-1815 " a
man " Graham " is quoted as saying "
Servitude (and the nature of the work itself) made miners a caste
aloof from the rest of the community. Their narrow isolated life
lulled all ambition, killed all energy, and inured to this lot,
like their fathers, they regarded it as inevitable for their children.
Serfdom " and " bondage " in the coal industry
goes back several hundred years, and recordings of such cases were
made as early as 1579.
is probable that rich landowners, involved in " agrarian serfdom
" stood model for later coalmasters. However, it seems likely
that slavery (or whatever one may wish to call it) evolved simultaneously
in both industries. The crux of the matter obviously was that the
worker had no one behind him who could advocate his rights, so he
entered work without being given a contract, and who was there to
listen to any of his complaints?
various Acts of 1775 and 1799 were, as we have learned,
greatly ignored by the masters, and probably not generally known
and understood among the colliers and coalbearers.
highlight the miner's inflexibility and isolated life, the following
points should be considered as well.
Where would the miner have gone, had he been able to go?
Would a move south to an English coalmine have solved or improved
accounts show that emigration would not have been desirable for
The mode of life in England differed greatly from the one the
Scottish miner was used to, and
The deeper pits in England allegedly resulted in the danger of
inflammable air, i.e. a greater risk of accidents would have been
Act was enforced in 1842. This Act followed the Royal Commission
which discovered appalling examples of child exploitation. Instances
of children as young as 4 years being employed, were cited; or children
working 12 hours a day alone in darkness; and of girls as young
as 6 years carrying coal on their backs.
Act prohibited the employment of women in the mines and of boys
under 10. It appointed mine inspectors .
conclusion, a reflection of the term " slave " or "
slavery ", which has so often been used in this connection,
would be inappropriate.
the collier was a victim of a kind of paternalism, strongly tinged
with feudal undertones. It seems appropriate under these circumstances,
that a person finding himself in this state of servitude, should
be called a " slave ", this term seemed to have been in
frequent use at the time.
can be argued, however, whether one can put any refining grades
on " slavery ". Some may say that the Scottish collier
was better off, than his Roman counterpart, or the contemporary
American Negro slave, because he, the Scottish miner, was not as
void of his rights as they were.
11. MENAGERIES AND ZOOS
idea of opening a zoo in Glasgow did not just arise in 1936, when
the Zoological Society of Glasgow and the West of Scotland was formed.
During the 19th century, travelling menageries were showing their
exhibits throughout Great Britain, and they were seen as " Wandering
Teachers of Natural History ". Menagerie owners considered
themselves as teachers of the crowds, " for had it not been
for them, people would not have known of wild animals ", so
of those menagerists was George Wombwell , who earned both
a good reputation and a good income, with his animal shows, and
these were, in the last century mainly commercial enterprises. However,
Wombwell must have had good qualities as a showman, because he received
" Royal Commands " on several occasions.
had brought George Wombwell to fame was, that he struck the right
idea at the right time. His idea of showing wild animals to the
public came about when he witnessed a pair of boa constrictors being
unloaded at the London Docks. He bought the snakes, exhibited them
to the public, and found this to be a lucrative business proposition.
Soon, Wombwell realised that a wider audience could be interested
in his enterprise; this was when he started on his travelling menagerie.
Other species of animals were added to the show, and his business
escalated quickly, so that he soon had several menageries running
at the same time, and each was travelling through different parts
of Great Britain.
of course, could no longer be done by George Wombwell on his own,
He needed helpers. One of them was his niece, Mrs Edmonds and, a
little later, her sister and family, the Bostocks, joined the business
concern was known from then on as " THE BOSTOCK AND WOMBWELL'S
MENAGERIE ", and not long after " ROYAL " was added
to the title, because the menagerie received a '' Royal Charter
' from King William IV. This charter enabled the enterprise
to show their menagerie wherever and whenever they wanted.
Bostocks' son, E H Bostock, was an enterprising young man and soon
managed a menagerie completely on his own. He particularly enjoyed
travelling to Scotland, where he found that he was cordially received
by the Scottish people.
note in " The Scotsman " in the year 1872 said of the Bostock
and Wombwell's Menageries " ...the collection
is certainly the largest travelling, and the one that has done more
to familiarise the minds of the masses with the denizens of the
forests than all the books of natural history ever printed during
its wandering existence. "
the death of Bostock's father, E B Bostock wished to become independent
and bought his own menagerie, with which he travelled. A few years
later, in 1897, he had the opportunity to buy the ' Olympia
', New City Road (Cowcaddens) Glasgow, which enabled him to
provide a more permanent show, but he still continued to travel
with his moveable menagerie(s). His permanent show at the Olympia
was known from then on as " The Scottish Zoo ", which was
a combination of zoo and circus shows.
1902 Bostock decided to reorganise his zoo, and consequently "
The Scottish Zoo and Glasgow Hippodrome " was opened. For many
years, this provided entertainment for the people of Glasgow and
also proved to be a lucrative business.
with increasing competition and eventual loss of interest in the
Scottish Zoo and Glasgow Hyppodrome by the public, E H Bostock who
always went with the times, decided to close it down, and to open
a roller skating rink instead. Roller skating had become a craze
in 1909, which Bostock was quick to realise was a good business
that time, Bostock had offered the whole of his zoological collection
to the Corporation of Glasgow for a Corporation Zoo. He would have
accepted a low price, and would, if he had been pressed, have made
the Corporation a gift of his animals. The offer was, however, turned
down by the Town Council, and therefore, Bostock had to sell the
contents of his zoo by auction in 1909.
attempt at opening a permanent Safari Park in the vicinity of Glasgow,
was made by Bostock in 1910, when he entered into negotiations with
Mr Archibald McKennieshore, to buy his estate at Killermont near
Bearsden. The deal fell through.
a further attempt of opening a permanent zoo for Glasgow at Rouken
Glen, was spoiled by the outbreak of the first World War.
had to wait another couple of decades longer until a new Zoological
Society of Glasgow and the West of Scotland was formed on a
non-commercial basis in 1936. In 1938 an option was taken on purchasing
Calderpark, and in 1939 CALDERPARK ESTATE was bought by the Society.
of the zoological gardens had, however, to be delayed because of
the war. The Society continued to function during these years, and
meetings and lectures were held regularly.
during the war years, when nothing could be done to the estate,
Calderpark had become rather wild and overgrown.
a zoo at these times had not been an easy task. The shortage of
building materials was overcome by donations of second-hand material
from closed-down coal pits. Also, some of the members donated whatever
material they were able to spare. This all helped towards the establishment
of Glasgow's zoological gardens, which were opened to the public
decades have passed since then, and recent years have seen many
developments at Calderpark, both with regard to improving the park,
and with regard to the animal side of the zoo. Much has been done
to help endangered species by captive breeding programmes.
has been a good choice as a site for Glasgow's zoo in many respects.
It is an ideal place, because here at Calderpark with its sloping
hills, the trees and the river, park-life and zoo-life complement
each other so well.
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1878. James Maclehose, Publisher to the University.
The Statistical Account of Scotland Drawn Up From the Communications
of the Ministers of the Different Parishes 7th Volume, by
Sir John Sinclair, BART. 1793. Edinburgh - Printed and sold by
Geology and Scenery in Scotland by J.B. Whittow, 1977 - Pelican
The Roman Occupation of South West Scotland Edited by S.N.
Miller, 1952 - Glasgow University Publication.
Lanarkshire Prehistoric and Roman Monuments . 1978 - Published
by the Royal Commission on The Ancient and Historic Monuments
SISSONS, J.B. (John Brian) The evolution of Scotland's scenary
[by] J.B. Sissons. Edinburgh, London, Oliver & Boyd 
A History of the Scottish Coal Industries Volume 1 (1700-1815)
by Baron F. Duckham, 1970 - David F. Charles, Newton Abbott
Swan's Views of Glasgow (Select Views of Glasgow (1829) 1983
- Lang Syne Publishers, Scotland.
From Menageries, Circuses and Theatres by E.H. Bostock J.P.
F.Z.S., 1927 - Chapman & Hall, London.
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1910. John Smith & Son, Glasgow Ltd.
Map of Lanarkshire - Forrester, 1813.
Ordnance Survey , Southampton, 1860